Category Archives: Food Quality

Orange Marmalade to Brighten Your Day

Sometimes new is better than the tried and true older version of something.

We took a look at the long-standing original Orange Marmalade procedure in the University of Georgia’s So Easy to Preserve book and decided to make it easier (and better?). The book version has a 12 to 18 hour standing period of the fruit and water ingredients before continuing with adding sugar and cooking. We found this wait to be unnecessary in affecting the outcome of the final product so we were able to shorten the procedure. Also, the book directions have you measure the fruit and water volume in cups after this standing period and then calculate the amount of sugar to add. That was a bit messy (and dirtied more dishes to wash!), so after some repetitions to figure out a specific amount of sugar to use with each batch, we eliminated that step, too!

Of course this will not get changed in the book until there is a new edition (a totally unknown date at this time, by the way) but our National Center for Home Food Preservation website makes it possible to bring it to you right away. The recipe is posted here: http://nchfp.uga.edu/how/can_07/orange_marmalade.html. We used navel oranges in our recipe development, and left all of the white albedo attached. See notes at the bottom of the recipe page.

This is still a traditionally very sweet marmalade that gels from correct cooking with the right proportions of sugar and pectin as well as acid. It is partially preserved for the recommended short canning procedure by the sugar content as well as acidic fruit, also. We recommend cutting the orange peel into very thin strips; it is “chock-full” of orange peel. However, the sweetness makes it not too bitter. (I will admit, I have never been a marmalade fan, but I do really like this one!)

The pectin comes from the citrus fruit albedo (the white pith or tissue right under the outer peel) that is included. As with all cooked jams, jellies or marmalades that gel without added purchased pectin, but only with the pectin found in the fruit, cooking to the right temperature for gelling will be a little variable depending on your actual fruit and pectin content, speed of boiling and size of cooking pot. Our yield is usually just the 7 half-pint jars or in one batch, at least another partial jar. It is important not to overcook, also, or you pass the point where the pectin will gel.

Brush up on your measurement of determining “doneness” if you need to! Temperature might work well with this one, or get a small glass plate cold in the freezer while you cook. When you are ready to test for doneness, take the plate out and drop a few drops of the marmalade onto the cold surface. It should hold its shape pretty well. If you use the Spoon Test, be sure you are capturing the jelly part of the marmalade on your spoon and not fruit or peel. You have to work  quickly with all these, and take the pan off your burner. You don’t want to overcook, either, and get a marmalade that is too stiff or gummy. This stage makes these methods a little less precise than cooking jams or marmalades with added pectin, but also makes them more special as you work to perfect your product!

If marmalade is something that can help brighten your morning or other meals with a little addition of flavor and color, enjoy!

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Celebrate Eating Together

On December 3, Family & Consumer Sciences Day is being celebrated with a “Dine In” theme. Since 2014, more than 300,000 people have publicly committed to dining in on the annual Family & Consumer Sciences Day http://www.aafcs.org/fcsday/home). This day also celebrates the birthday of Ellen Swallow Richards, the founder of what is now the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS), formerly called the American Home Economics Association. The website above lists over 30 different valued sponsors or partners in this initiative. The promotion is an international event.

People are being encouraged to make a commitment to preparing and eating healthy meals with their family or others in their community. This is a fitting tribute to Ellen Richards, as she so believed in people working together and valuing family and community. You might consider this a good day to get some home prepared and preserved foods out of your freezer or pantry and share them together in a setting of community eating, whether with our own family or a group you invite to eat home prepared foods together. Maybe your community garden groups would like to share a meal of local foods and talk about community and health!

For other ideas, you can monitor the entries communities are sharing at http://www.aafcs.org/fcsday/home, or on Twitter and Facebook. Resources, such as an original recipe from the Beekman Boys cookbook and recipes certified by the American Heart Association can be found here: http://www.aafcs.org/fcsday/fcs-day-resources/dining-in-resources and http://www.aafcs.org/fcsday/fcs-day-resources/fcs-day-web-resources. Links to food preparation videos from The Art Institutes as well as Texas A&M University, food-related resources to use with children, and many other resources are also provided links. And of course, even if you do not want to can them, you can find interesting recipes at the National Center for Home Food Preservation for some relishes, fruit dishes, and salsas for your sides! (http://nchfp.uga.edu)

You can read a little more about Ellen Swallow Richards here, http://connect.aafcs.org/about/about-us, as well as in many other sources. Ellen Richards, a chemist, was the first female graduate and professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Smith College conferred an honorary degree of Doctor of Science on her. She was an activist for nutrition, foods education, child protection, public health, women’s rights, and the application of scientific principles to everyday living for the family. Her activism, vision and professional experiences led to formalization of the home economics profession and founding of the American Home Economics Association. Here is one short biography: https://libraries.mit.edu/archives/exhibits/esr/esr-biography.html. I have done a lot of archival research and reading myself about Ellen Richards’ life and professional contributions, especially regarding public health and safe food and water. It is nothing but inspiring, especially when you read a lot of her correspondence with other foods and nutrition professional leaders in the late 1800s.

(References are the links provided above throughout the text.)

 

Summer is a Good Time to Think About the Cold

Why do we emphasize storing frozen foods at 0 degrees F? Even though other freezer temperatures can stop the growth of microorganisms, quality will continue to be lost even at these cold temperatures. The recommended shelf life listings we have for frozen foods are based on a storage temperature of 0 degrees F. and expected retention of good quality. Warmer temperatures, even though the food may still be frozen, will result in shorter retention times for quality.

Even though blanching for specific time at a given temperature is recommended to inactivate enzymes, oxygen around the food as well as the dryness of the air in a freezer will cause other quality losses. And foods that are not blanched, or are inadequately blanched, will have active enzymes. Enzymatic and oxidative changes in stored food will occur more slowly at freezer temperatures than higher ones, but they still will proceed. One chemical reaction that will proceed, even though slowly, in the freezer is oxidative rancidity of fats (including those contained within meats, poultry, etc.).

Another way to protect quality of frozen foods is to achieve a fast rate of freezing. The faster that the water in foods gets frozen, the more protective for quality. Fast freezing promotes the formation of smaller ice crystals than slow rates of freezing. The smaller the ice crystals, the less damage done to cell walls and the texture of foods.

Fast freezing can be promoted by making sure hot or warm foods are completely cooled before putting them into the freezer, using small package size, and then spreading your packages out within the freezer until the food is frozen. The packages can then be stacked or arranged together if you wish, but while they still becoming frozen, make sure the cold air can surround all sides of the package. It is a good organizational plan to package your foods into suitable serving sizes anyway, but a good rule of thumb to promote fast freezing is to keep each package size fairly small. If you know you will be placing a large quantity of foods into the freezer at once, consider setting the temperature control of your freezer to -10 degrees F. or lower about 24 hours in advance. Usually about 2 to 3 pounds of food per cubic foot of storage space can freeze within 24 hours.

Speaking of freezing foods that are first blanched or cooked, make sure they are completely cooled before even putting them into your freezer containers or bags, also. An important reason is to promote quick freezing once inside the freezer for food quality and energy efficiency; however, another reason is the size of those ice crystals again! Moisture that condenses on a lid or sides of a package from hot steam will lead to quality-damaging large ice crystals inside the package.

Freezing food is an excellent way to preserve the freshness in most foods, as well as the nutrients, colors and tastes. However, there are best practices to make sure these advantages are realized. For more readings on this topic:

Freezing Pointers: http://nchfp.uga.edu/how/freeze/pointers.html

General Shelf Life of Frozen Foods: http://nchfp.uga.edu/how/freeze/freezer_shelf_life.html

How to Freeze Specific Foods: http://nchfp.uga.edu/how/freeze.html